At the intermediate stage of the project planning process, the preliminary planning discussed in Chapter 3 has largely been done. The project manager and his or her team have, we hope, clearly identified the problem their planned project is meant to solve. They have agreed on the basic outlines of a solution after having examined all the project alternatives they could think of and thoroughly examined their presumptions in doing so. They have obtained an understanding of the key stakeholders in the process as well as an understanding of the applicable legal requirements. They have undertaken a preliminary cost and risk analysis of the project and have obtained approval to proceed to the project procurement and execution stage from the legislative or other approval body that authorizes funding for the undertaking.