Scientific growth and an expansion of secured knowledge is one of the general goals of science. But specific objectives, values and norms of a given science system can also be interpreted as its ‘cultural structure’, becoming binding for actions of scientists and universities. A cultural structure of the ERA designates norms and objectives outlined in the respective policy documents of supranational scope. This chapter clarifies what is meant by ‘supranationality’ in research funding; how, in the history of European science policies, its cultural goal shifted from transnational cooperation to scientific ‘excellence’; and which type of ‘frontier knowledge’ should be created. The chapter also outlines how the ERC as an institution became a means to realize the ERA’s economic aims; how it is organized in relation to external actors such as the European Commission and internally structured by different organs; and how its persistent influence on European science is culturally authorized and legitimized.