Even in the Imperial Chancellery the title Khalrfah seems to have received little consideration, as may be judged from the great collection of diplomatic correspondence, compiled

It is noticeable that the claim made in this Treaty was for the exercise of authority in respect of the organization of what might, from the Muslim point of view, be termed religious organization. The Sultan claimed for himself much the same position as could be claimed in the Orthodox Church by the Empress of Russia, though she possessed no ecclesiastical function. But Western Christendom, ignorant of the relations that sub-

By means of such comparisons, an entirely new characteristic was suggested as being included among the functions of the Caliph, namely, that of spiritual authority, which has a definite meaning in the Christian system, but was altogether inapplicable to the Caliph according to Muslim doctrine. The comparison was popularized in Europe through the influence of M. d' Ohsson' s monumental work, Tableau General de l' Empire Othoman, the first volume of which was published in Paris in 1787; in this work he speaks of the , sacerdotal authority' of the Sultan,16 and styles him the ' Pontiff of the Musulmans '.17