Lord Mul;1ammad is His servant and His Apostle, who has repaired the breaches of the faith and has displayed all manner of noble qualities (may God bless him and his family, the memorial of whose virtues will never perish, and his Companions who wrought noble deeds in the faith and merited increase in good things !). Now, that ruler is most deserving of honour and good report and most worthy that the pen should bow down and prostrate itself while writing the recital of his virtues and his righteous deeds, who puts forth all his efforts and sees praise coming to meet them, who calls on men to obey him ... and ever sets his hand to generous deeds with might and main, and, sword in hand, never destroys the hiding-place of error, without giving it over to the flames and drenching it in blood. Since all these noble qualities are the special characteristics of his sublime highness, Sultan Malik u~-~ahir Rukn ud-Din (may God ennoble and exalt him !), the High Chancellery of the descendant of the Prophet, the Imam Mustan~ir (may God exalt his power), has been pleased to extol the lofty merit of this prince and to proclaim his good offices, which even the most eloquent language would fail adequately to express or fittingly commend, for it is he who has raised up again the Abbasid dynasty after it had been crippled by the blows of ill-fortune and robbed of all its welfare and blessings; on its behalf he has reproved its adverse fortune and has won for it the favour and goodwill of fate, that had

The same forms and ceremonies were observed as in the case of Mustan~ir; the genealogy of the fugitive was scrutinized and declared to be authentic by the chief Qa~l, but Baybars allowed nearly a year to elapse, during which coins continued to be struck in the name of Mustan~ir, before arranging in November 1262 for the formal ceremony of paying allegiance to the new Caliph, who in return conferred upon him royal authority. The next day was Friday and the Caliph delivered the following Khutbah: 'Praise be to God who has raised up for the family of 'Abbas a pillar and a helper, and has appointed for them a Sultan as their defender. I praise Him both for good and evil days; may He help me to give thanks for the blessings He has lavished upon me, and make me

up your loins in your efforts to fulfil the obligation of Jihad. Fear God while ye are able. Hear and obey, spend the wealth of your own lives. Those who refrain from being niggardly of their lives will assuredly be blessed. There is no longer any excuse to prevent you from attacking the enemies of religion and from defending the Muslims. This Sultan Malik u~-~ahir, the illustrious, wise and just ruler, who wages Jihad and brings succour, the pillar of the world and of religion, has risen up to defend the Imamate, when there were but few to help it, and he has scattered the armies of the unbelievers when they had already begun to pry into the recesses of our dwellings. Through his care the oath of allegiance has been taken by men who have bound themselves by covenant, and the Abbasid dynasty has thereby gained numerous soldiers. Servants of God, make haste to show your gratitude for such a blessing; purify your intentions and you will be victorious; fight against the followers of the Devil and you will gain the advantage; do not let yourselves be terrified by past events, for war has its chances, but success in the end comes to the God-fearing. Time endures but for two days, and the next world is reserved for the true beli~vers. May God unite you all on the basis of piety and give you a glorious victory through the faith. Pray God to pardon me, yourselves and all Muslims; pray for His forgiveness, for He is forgiving and compassionate.' The Caliph then sat down for a while in accordance