The Caliph must thus be a person capable of fulfilling administrative, judicial, and military functions. These functions Mawardi sets out in detail as follows: the defence and maintenance of religion, the decision of legal disputes, the protection of the territory of Islam, the punishment of wrong-doers, the provision of troops for guarding the frontiers, the waging of war (jihad) against those who refuse to accept Islam or submit to Muslim rule, the collection and organization of taxes, the payment of salaries and the administration of public funds, the appointment of competent officials, and lastly, personal attention to the details of government. 2 These varied activities expected of the Caliph, Mawardi sums up as being' the defence of religion and the administration of the state'.