Prior to 1860, the main banking operations, i.e., the advancing of loans on various kinds of securities, the mortgaging of real property, etc., were in the hands of the old Government banks. The latter were abolished in 1860, 1 and the State Bank of Russia was founded to take over their activities. The following list 2 shows the main credit institutions in the country, in the groups to which they belong, and the date of the passing of the Statutes under which they were established.