The previous chapter looked at how cognitive science can inform the planning of lessons. In this chapter we will continue by looking at further research into the teaching of lessons. In a review of research from cognitive scientists, master teachers and cognitive supports spanning four decades, Barak Rosenshine presents ten research-based instructional principles that all teachers should use (Rosenshine, 2012). These are as follows:
Lesson starts: Begin a lesson with a short review of previous learning.
Present new material in small steps with student practice after each step.
Ask a large number of questions and check the responses of all students.
Guide student practice.
Check for student understanding.
Obtain a high success rate.
Provide scaffolds for difficult tasks.
Require and monitor independent practice.
Engage students in weekly and monthly reviews.