In Japan, as elsewhere in the world, questions of identity loomed large in the 1960s. A great number of novelists and film directors responded in various ways. For example, such young nouvelle vague filmmakers as Masahiro Shinoda and Nagisa Oshima defined the identity crisis ofrebellious youth in terms ofsex and violence. In contrast, Hiroshi Teshigahara, working closely with the novelist Kobo Abe, explored existential themes arising out of contemporary man's quest for identity.