We began this study of the changing structure of American cities with both simplistic assumptions and an even more simplistic nomenclature. Like virtually everyone eise studying American cities, we understood that there were reformed cities, usually called council-manager cities, but sometimes called the city-manager form. And we understood that so-called unreformed cities were generally the mayor-council form. But, on the basis of simple observation and experience, we knew that these categories were overly simplistic and failed to account for pattems of structural change we knew were happening in many cities.