We have good evidence that shortly before 1600 BC military forces took over some of the most valuable parts of the Greek mainland and the Carpathian basin. Where the intruders came from is not yet clear, and may not be until more archaeological evidence is available, but very good work on this topic has been done by Silvia Penner. 1 Her Schliemanns Schachtgräberrund und der europäische Nordosten began as a doctoral dissertation, presented at the Universität des Saarlandes in 1995. The book, published 3 years later, is a model of industry and diligence and is also distinguished by courageous critical thinking. Penner made a strong case that the people buried in the Shaft Graves at Mycenae came from the forest steppe between the Volga and Ural rivers. 2 She presented in detail striking parallels between burials in the Shaft Graves and those in the Sintashta-Petrovka archaeological culture (and as far to the east as the Bashkortostan border with western Siberia). Penner’s work leaves no doubt that the steppe must be at the center of any conversation about the provenance of the people who took over parts of MH Greece.