The Indian National Congress in its earlier efforts was dominated by men trained in British political principles, who demanded the gradual application to India of the doctrines which had triumphed in the United Kingdom. But it was soon to be deeply affected by a very different influence, that of a Hinduism proud of its past and intolerant of all change. In Bengal the passing of the Age of Consent Act, 1891, induced by the scandal of the death of a Hindu child-wife, raised bitter protest, and so vehement were the denunciations of the Bangabasi that its editor, manager, and publisher were prosecuted for sedition. The freedom of the Press had been re-established in 1882 by Lord Ripon, but it had degenerated into licence. This was soon shown in Bombay, where, under the aegis of the Sanskrit scholar, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, reactionary Hinduism had made rapid strides. In 1896 to famine was added bubonic plague, and the measures of segregation attempted, in carrying out which British troops were used, gave admirable opportunity to the Kesari, his organ, to excite indignation against the barbarians. This took the practical shape of the assassination of two officers and led to Tilak's conviction of exciting disaffection against the government. Tilak's action in encouraging school boys and students to join gymnastic societies with revolutionary ends was imitated in Bengal, and by 1902–3 a definitely revolutionary movement was there in being. Strength was lent to it by Curzon's well-meant schemes of educational reform, which were interpreted as designed to lessen the influence of the Bengali intelligentsia, and by the decision to divide Bengal into two provinces. Justified as this step was by considerations of public interest and sound administration, it evoked much bitterness among the Hindus of Bengal who resented the fact that the new province would be specifically Muslim, while lawyers were jealous of the establishment of a new High Court at Dacca, ignoring the injustice with which Eastern Bengal had so long been treated. Moreover, the resentment of Curzon's action was increased by his attitude of benevolent despotism and mental superiority, while the prestige of the European race was suffering gravely from Japan's victory over Russia and the economic success of the Japanese was attributed to freedom from British exploitation. Secret societies were speedily formed, arms were collected, funds secured by political dacoities, and the weapon of Press attack and of assassination directed against the lieutenant-governor and leading to the murder of two ladies at Muzaffarpur on April 30th 1908. The weapon of boycott of British goods under cover of promoting the use of local products was employed freely. It was advocated by the Indian National Congress at its session of 1905, and again in 1906. In the Punjab the revolutionary movement waxed strong in 1907, when the Colonization Act of the legislature was deemed to be a breach of faith with the colonists, and when efforts were made to sap the loyalty of the police and the troops alike. But there some relief was attained by the deportation under a regulation of 1818 of Lajpat and Ajit Singh and Minto's disallowance of the Punjab Act, despite his reluctance to encourage agitation by seeming to yield to it.