This chapter discusses structural problems of the global capitalist agri-food system and outlines the theoretical framework of the book to provide foundation for consequent chapters. The neo-Marxist and Gramscian theoretical framework of this book portrays the dynamics of the agri-food system as something which is continually being shaped and reshaped by hegemonic and counter-hegemonic forces. Production–distribution practices, governance structures, and ideas that sustain the mainstream agri-food system can be seen as part of hegemonic forces, while counter-hegemonic forces are those which try to challenge, reform and transform the hegemonic agri-food system toward more social and ecologically sustainable paths. The Gramscian concept of co-optation of oppositions is also used to explore hegemonic forces’ attempts to integrate or subsume dissent so that it does not become a major threat to the status quo.