The disparity between developed and developing nations is not restricted to economics. Mortality rates also reflect these differences, specifically the mortality rates of women from childbirth. More than 500,000 African women die each year from pregnancy-related causes. All of these deaths are preventable with adequate medical care (Maine and Rosenfeld, 1999; WIN News, 1999; Jowett, 2000). The causes of these deaths include hemorrhaging, infection, hypertension, obstructed labor, and complications from unsafe abortions. With adequate medical care these conditions are not fatal; however, in Africa adequate medical care is not available. Most women depend on traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to deliver their babies, and TBAs, for the most part, have had no midwifery or medical training. Therefore, when complications arise, TBAs may not be able to identify the problem and/or refer the pregnant woman to the proper medical professional. The result is more than 500,000 pregnancy-related deaths that are preventable. This chapter will discuss the social factors related to the high rate of maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. It will focus on the role of traditional birth attendants in reducing maternal deaths. It will conclude with a discussion of how governments can improve maternal and child health in Sub-Saharan Africa.