When traditional forms of multilateral governance fail to materialise, is non-state governance a viable alternative? This question besets the forestry issue area, where repeated attempts to forge a binding international convention to manage the use and preservation of forests have failed (Wang 2001; Dimitrov 2003). Most relevant states now strongly oppose a global forest convention, including some that previously voiced support. Moreover, even prominent nongovernmental organisations (NGOs) have withdrawn their support, fearing a convention might do worse at promoting sustainable forest management than no treaty at all. In the wake of this failure, voluntary forest certification and eco-labelling schemes sponsored by environmental NGOs or forest company and landowner associations have arisen to fill this governance gap. Can such schemes gain acceptance as a viable alternative to a global forest convention?