Varied in composition, many fleets moved from the West to the Levant and the Holy Land during the Crusades. Some, such as the Venetian fleets of 1099-1100 and of 1217, which transported Andrew of Hungary to Acre, Philip Augustus’s of 1191, the fleet that arrived from Marseilles in 1239, and most of those from Northern Europe and England, consisted of sailing ships of the naves type only. On rare occasions only did fleets consist solely of galleys: the Genoese fleet of 1097, the Venetian fleet of 1220 for the Fifth Crusade, and Frederick II’s of 1228. One of the Genoese galleys of 1097 was a transport galley, a sandanum, and Frederick’s fleet included transport galleys, taride, for horses and materiel, as well as battle galleys. In 1107 Sigurd of Norway probably had both longships for battle and transports of the type of the Northern knorr} Other fleets had both naves and galleys; for example, the Pisans in 1098-9.3 Naves also transported warriors and their horses, as the Venetians did in 1122-3. Only from the Third Crusade, however, did fleets including horse transport galleys with hull ports at the stern,

known as taride, chelandre, or salandria, come from the West to Outremer. Philip Augustus, however, shipped his horses on naves.