It took almost four months, 26 June-20 October, for the forces of the First Crusade to travel approximately 1,200 kilometres from Nicaea to Antioch.2 This averages out at a rate of march of about ten kilometres per day, including all stops.3 In part, the pace of the march must be seen in terms of conditions for the line of march traversed much very difficult terrain, although this was mitigated to some extent by the fact that the Crusaders mostly followed old Roman roads and, for the most part, the Byzantines had diligently kept the key arteries of military and commercial transportation in repair for centuries.4 Normal difficulties encountered by large forces moving through country that held many opportunites for hostile action also undoubtedly affected the pace at which they moved.5 In addition, the Crusaders faced terrible climatic conditions which saw temperatures probably average in excess of thirty degrees centigrade during the day throughout a good part of the march.6 Finally, due to the fact that they were travelling mostly in the dry season, there were from time to time problems with obtaining adequate water.7