Introduction The first two chapters made the case that IPs are: ● The essential carrier by which knowledge travels from one human mind to another, and without which it couldn’t get around ● A key asset, without which no organization could function, because they represent their values and knowledge, are agents in the transformation and di≠usion of knowledge, and embodiments of organizational memory

and that by virtue of all the roles they play, they are ● Vital information resources

and that therefore they should be ● Recognized as essential supports for whatever the organization does ● Managed as a key element of knowledge management and information management ● Supported, in their creation and use, with appropriate infrastructure and human

resources ● Included in the organization’s strategies for information and information systems.