Between 1654–1810 when Anglo-Portuguese commercial relations were governed by the provisions of the 1654 treaty, many hundreds of English men and women lived and worked in Portugal, Madeira and the Azores. As far as the merchants and factors among them were concerned, there was always one constant problem; how to persuade the Portuguese to observe the provisions of the 1654 treaty. This was particularly true for merchants in the outports and in the islands, who were very much in the hands of governors, who were themselves too far from central government in Portugal for official admonitions to be heeded.