Militaries worldwide are making substantial investments in human enhancements - giving the warfighter a technological upgrade. Driven by neuroscience, biotechnology, nanotechnology, robotics and other emerging technologies, this upgrade includes research to build warfighters who can operate for days without sleep or food, lift superhuman loads, learn faster and even communicate telepathically

Such new abilities jump right from the pages of science-fiction, giving rise to ethical and policy questions not seriously before contemplated. To be sure, much work exists on human-enhancement ethics in general. But there is currently little analysis of the issues in a military context. Considering recent controversies such as required amphetamine use for certain pilots to stay alert on long missions, how safe should these enhancements be prior to their deployment? Are there meaningful reasons for which a warfighter should be allowed to object to being enhanced? How should we weigh the risks to the individual against the benefits of an enhanced military?