ABSTRACT

In the past decade, a number of countries have undertaken or considered institutional reform in the port industry in an effort to improve efficiency and performance and to reduce the government's financial and administrative responsibility for the industry. Institutional restructuring in the port sector can consist of various methods, but it should have a single overall objective: i.e., to make the port responsive to the market and thus satisfy client needs (UNCTAD, 1995). Organisational changes have been introduced through measures such as commercialisation, deregulation and privatisation so that the role of government and the public sector has been significantly reduced. At the same time, the private sector has been encouraged to take part in port activities more actively than ever before.