Starting with this chapter, we turn our attention to the second purpose of this study: the formation of women’s legal status under the Sharia Law as a prelude to exploring Iran’s Sharia-based criminal justice system and its treatment of women in Iran, one of the most important Islamic countries. The primary purpose of this chapter is to give a synopsis of the formation of woman’s legal status in the Sharia Law by concentrating on some of the factors that Muslim men of letters (Ulama) have utilized in their analysis of women’s status in the Qur’an and in the Prophet Muhammad’s Tradition.