In order to close this discussion I will, in what follows, reflect on

some of the key points made in the book, clarify why I have exposed

an immense amount of data, documented hundreds of human prac-

tices related to total landscape, and unearthed the theory of total

landscape. Finally, I will open up the discourse in a few speculative

directions. I began this book years ago, not because I was interested

in theme parks, but because I was intrigued by a specific ensemble

of conditions as much characteristic of late modernity as they were

of the emerging postmodernity. I was puzzled by them, enthusiastic

about some aspects of their promise, but also troubled by their total-

izing effects. For the reasons laid out in the opening paragraphs of

this book, I named it ‘Total Landscape’. I believe, and I hope I have

persuaded the reader also, I have been right in arguing that the theme

park and the propast are its archetypal specialized spaces, and that

both are the ur-forms of total landscape. In that capacity, they suc-

cessfully reveal both subjects and objects of contemporary human

knowledge as well as their complex and intricate relationships. The

form that such a knowledge increasingly takes has been dramatically

departing from two humanistic beliefs: firstly, that the human being

must be at its center, and secondly that such a knowledge must be

grounded in specific places. Even though the second belief has been

irreparably shattered by total landscape, the first one still holds true,

but in radically different ways: the human being has been objectified,

abstracted, rationalized and instrumentalized as a means to a norma-

tive end. In that respect, the theme park and the propast are ‘ideal

symbols’ of the Twentieth Century, precisely because the general

conception of human being, as well as human knowledge of it, reveal

themselves immediately in a particularly illuminating form. It is for

such reasons, I have argued here, that the theme park and the propast

are the theory of total landscape. If I am right, one can, without doubt,

see how the human being has been erased as the subject of human

knowledge, ‘like a face drawn in sand at the edge of the sea’, under

the effect of the emerging technocratic establishments and their

instrumentalization of human knowledge towards totalizing aims.