In this chapter we explain the background of positive approaches to organizations and their applications. The study of organizations from a positive perspective: (1) articulates a focus on strengths; (2) aims to achieve excellent results across broad categories of stakeholders; (3) and does so in a virtuous and socially responsible manner. In this chapter we consider the duality between positive and negative, compare and contrast the assumptions underpinning classical management and positive management and discuss the practical consequences of positive assumptions.