After examining the cascading crises that Siena faced in the second half of the fourteenth century, this chapter focuses on Renaissance Siena. Throughout the fifteenth century, the Sienese managed to restore stability to their city government through a coalition government. By the end of the fifteenth century and throughout the first half of the sixteenth century, first with the despotism of the Petrucci family and then with the invasions of various foreign powers, the Sienese struggled to maintain their independence until 1555.