The humanitarian norm – or humanitarianism – is a broad concept which, first of all, encompasses traditional religious humanitarian principles and the principles established by the Red Cross in the 19th century to alleviate human suffering during wartime. The humanitarian norm is also linked to developmental aid activities. A more unconditional notion of humanitarianism includes the right or the duty ‘to intervene wherever victims are calling for help, where human beings are suffering and dying, regardless of borders’ (Kouchner, 1992) and is close to questions such as forcible humanitarian intervention or penalization for war crimes and crimes against humanity.