Chapter 3 discussed the economic characteristics of containerisation and considered its effect upon shipping lines, ports and volumes of trade. This chapter will consider the impact of containerisation on shippers and their customers, drawing upon Chapter 2’s demonstration of the need to evaluate all the costs involved. Some of the problems containerisation poses for these firms will then be discussed: the fear of shipping and port monopolies, labour relations difficulties at all the terminals in the system, and insurance, legal and documentation problems. Finally the chapter will attempt to achieve a long-term perspective of the viability of containerisation by introducing further constraints upon its development in the form of competition from other transport methods: pallet systems, lash, and airfreight.