In the south Denikin was faced with a war on three fronts. Compared with the enterprise of Kolchak, as Churchill was to write, ‘the military effort of Denikin was far more serious and sustained’. 1 In May 1919 he was making progress on two of his fronts: the Donets basin, where Red troops had been distracted by the turmoil in the Ukraine; and the northern Don, where the rising behind the Red lines shook the morale of the Soviet forces. On the Manych front there was still deadlock, and a break-out in the direction of Tsaritsyn was Denikin’s major priority.