When Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was assassinated on that hot summer’s afternoon in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914, the state of Czechoslovakia did not exist. The Czechs and Slovaks lived in the region of Bohemia, Moravia and Slovakia embraced by the then fragile borders of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Archduke’s death provided the stimulus and essential boost to encourage the Czechoslovak national movement to come out of the shadows and on to the international stage. The leader of the revolutionaries was distinguished in both appearance and academic achievement. His name was Thomas Masaryk, and his receding hairline complemented a professorial image. Not only was he Professor of Philosophy at Prague University, he was also a member of the Austro-Hungarian Parliament. For thirty years his aim had been to separate the Slavic people from the Austrians, a nation with whom they had no natural affinity. In order to achieve that aim, Masaryk believed that it was essential to establish both a government in exile and a national army.