Competition over marine and coastal common resources, and the realisation of limits to such resources, leads to the question of how best to manage them. Marine governance is a politically and culturally driven process, shaped by human livelihoods and perceptions. Individuals’ perceptions shape the marine governance process and may also transform competition for such resources into conflict over them. Four sets of perceptions regarding the rules, rights and effects of marine resource use – identified during the conflict case study analyses – are presented in this chapter. These perceptions relate to rights to/ownership of marine and coastal resources, fair treatment, threats to wellbeing, and poor governance. These can be considered factors which exacerbate the potential for marine and coastal conflict.