The discussion of the cognitive and cultural evolution of humankind contained within the previous chapters has drawn attention to the way novel insights into this developmental process can be gained from utilising ideas from complexity theory and theories of human evolution. The essential core of this emerging analysis is that certain components of cognition and cultural life can be understood as being the expression of an underlying causative agency, that has arisen by way of selective processes, within a complex, multidimensional and interconnected material world.