The subject of noise in moving-magnet (MM) RIAA preamplifiers is an involved business. An MM cartridge is a combination of resistance and a significant amount of inductance, with neither parameter having standard values, and this is combined with the complications of RIAA equalisation.[1] Burkhard Vogel has written a monumental 740-page book solely on RIAA amp noise,[2] but even this does not exhaust the subject; I will do the best I can in a chapter. The basic noise mechanisms are described in Chapter 1.