The framework within which the EU makes its Mediterranean security policy is the EMP. This chapter analyzes the development of Europe's Mediterranean policy, and its politico-military dimension in particular, an evolution which was driven by the growing awareness of the European interests in the Mediterranean described in chapter 1. Then follows a detailed analysis of the politico-military aspects of the Barcelona Conference, where the EMP was founded, and of all follow-up conferences, in order to determine the causes of the Partnership's failure to realize its ambitious security policy objectives.