The founding document of the European Community, the Treaty of Rome, assigned top priority to the issue of transport, which was thought to be vital to physically integrating the Common Market. Nevertheless, a Common Transport Policy (CTP) was left undeveloped for a long time. Only in the mid-1980s did the CTP finally gain momentum. This is not to say that no decisions whatsoever regarding transport had been made at the Community level before that. However, until about a decade ago European transport policy did not significantly change the way transport was dealt with in Europe: it continued to treat it as a national issue or as an issue to be settled within bilateral agreements among member states. Academic observers (e.g. Lindberg and Scheingold, 1970) and commenting practitioners (e.g. degli Abbati, 1987, Erdmenger, 1983) were extremely disappointed in the poor shape of the CTP.