Was Marx a ‘utopian’? Did he describe, in a variety of aspects and with some consistency, an imaginary state or society which he regarded as better, in some respects at least, than the one in which he lived? In the following two chapters I explore this question at length. Given that Marx himself divides the communist future into two halves or ‘phases’, I will divide my own discussion into two halves, with this chapter focusing on the dictatorship of the proletariat and the following chapter focusing on full communism.