Chapter 11 reviews the various major technologies used in ancient times, starting with stone. The basic techniques for manufacturing stone tools are described. Lithic experimentation and ethnoarchaeology play leading roles in the study of stone technologies; edge-wear and petrological studies throw light on the trade in raw materials and the uses to which tools were put. Ceramics (clay objects), which date to the last 14,000 years of prehistory, are commonplace finds. The process of pottery manufacture and the various methods used are described. Metallurgy is a phenomenon of the past 6,000 years. The basic properties of copper, bronze, gold, and iron are described, as well as some of the cultural contexts in which metallurgy developed. Typological and technological analyses are used to study prehistoric metallurgy. Bone tools are thought to be among the earliest of all artifacts. They are important in some areas, particularly the Arctic, as indicators of typological change. The manufacture of wood tools involves well-understood mechanical processes, such as cutting and whittling, and these can often be identified even from unfinished artifacts. Basketry and textiles offer unique opportunities for studying ancient artistry. They also provide useful chronological markers.