As we saw with regard to the 1895 census, a good deal of Germany’s unemployment during our period was seasonally related. The census takers themselves recognized this fact and divided their inquiries accordingly, with the December tally recording significantly more unemployment than the June survey. Much of the difference between the summer and winter rates was attributable to seasonal shut-downs in agriculture, transportation and the building trades. Geographically, seasonal differentials were greatest in major ports, large cities and agrarian areas. Regional variations between northern and southern, eastern and western provinces were frequently pronounced due to divergent patterns of economic development as well as climatic differences.