ABSTRACT

A number of ideas have been presented in this book. The central one is that it is possible to frame the phenomenon of venturing in international firms in terms of four analytical contexts. These contexts are defined by the driving force for entrepreneurial initiatives and the control of assets that are used to pursue those initiatives. We have seen that quite distinct sets of academic literatures help us understand what goes on in each of these contexts. These different bodies of literature arguably are a reflection of the interests of the researchers involved, the times and places in which they interacted with international firms to get data, and trends in the academic world in terms of ‘hot topics’ in their respective areas. However, the case stories of international firms of all shapes and sizes that pursue innovation, take risks, and are proactive in their strategy, tell us that narrow analyses of entrepreneurial phenomena across borders are limited and blinkered. The fragmented orthodoxy that has emerged lacks a full explanation of the reality of what goes on in international firms as they continuously flex their muscles in a world of seemingly unending opportunity.