ABSTRACT

In this chapter we bring together the main threads from the previous four chapters (i.e., the four contexts) and discuss the reality of venturing in international firms in an integrative, cross-contextual way. The foregoing discussion of the four contexts shows how there can be a multiplicity of driving forces behind innovation, risk-taking and proactivity in international firms. It also shows how a wide range of resources and capabilities underpin the venturing process and that these differ across contexts. Furthermore, as the cases illustrate, this broad range of potential driving forces and assets determine how venturing unfolds over time. It is then necessary to understand the driving forces and assets in a dynamic sense. More precisely, it is necessary to appreciate how entrepreneurial knowledge moves, often seamlessly, between entrepreneurial contexts in international firms through interfaces that often are not formally defined. I argue that harnessing this dynamic process is a strategic imperative for the leadership of MNEs that want to pursue international venturing. Leadership challenges as discussed in this chapter take on a completely new meaning when we consider venturing in international firms in an holistic, cross-contextual way.