In discussing issues of methodology it was asserted that theoretical reflection alone was insufficient to understand processes such as integration and multiculturalism, or to contribute to effective anti-racist strategies. In the preceding chapters an attempt has been made to contribute to a broader understanding of such issues through qualitative fieldwork contextualised by historical investigation and analysis of quantitative Census data. In this final chapter some conclusions are drawn in relation to the assertion and negotiation of identity by Pakistani immigrants and their descendants in Scotland; the historical continuity of multiculturalism; and the importance of multiculturalism as an integrative process.