In this chapter, I will present the theoretical position on literacy adopted in this book. I do not understand literacy as a skill that people are in possession of, but as “something people do” (Papen 2005: 25). This research is inspired by approaches within literacy studies focusing on the necessity of studying literacy in practice, and particularly from Brian Street’s focus on the ideological embeddedness of literacy (Barton and Hamilton 1998, Street 1984). Towards the end of the chapter, I will present the relation between religion and literacy.