This chapter discusses theoretical assumptions which have been central to accounts of middle childhood —that is, the period following infancy and prior to adolescence. Early sections discuss the emergence and early development of language, the relationships between language and think —ing, and the nature of reasoning in childhood. Next, the interrelated areas of drawing and of spatial cognition are discussed. Finally, some accounts of social and moral development in childhood are considered: In particular, the accounts of Freud and of Piaget which focus on the child’s relationship to the society of adults.