The strife in the Central Asian Republics began when revolutionary groups with religious and political goals began to fight for power. Some Uzbeks who formed the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) joined the civil wars in Tajikistan and Afghanistan. However, they also realized the profits to be made in drug trafficking. Soon Central Asian jihadists moved to Afghanistan and Pakistan as guns for hire. They also established links to Europe. This chapter describes the origin of jihadist groups such as the IMU and its offshoot, the Islamic Jihad Union (IJU), their links to Al-Qaida, and the links to organized crime that emerged following their move into exile.