The materials in this Part are founded on the following principles:

Spoken language is the bedrock of children’s personal, social, cultural, cognitive, creative and imaginative development. It is a means of thinking through ideas as well as a medium of communication and the most important resource for teaching and learning in and beyond the classroom.

Spoken language is not only the basis of reading and writing but also has a repertoire of its own which deserves equal attention in teaching.

The characteristics of effective classroom talk should be understood and deployed by teachers in their own talk as well as planned for pupils to acquire and practise.