Grammar and punctuation are tools to make meaning clear for speakers and writers of a common language. Fluent users of a language have considerable implicit knowledge of language structure and how to make meaning clear to themselves and others. Teachers have to plan to decide what aspects of sentence grammar (syntax) to make explicit to children so they are more aware of the choices they can make, particularly in their writing, to get better at creating the messages and texts they want to or are asked to compose. Grammar and punctuation are best learned in real reading and writing contexts. There is no evidence that the decontextualised learning of rules and definitions lead to improvements in children’s spoken or written language and basing teaching on genuine texts is the best way forward in developing secure knowledge and use of grammar and punctuation.