Several major theories have informed current approaches to teaching writing: cognitive theories, focusing on individual development of skills and strategies; sociocognitive theories, which build on these but emphasise the role of social factors; theories which include community experience; genre theory, which identifies a range of text types to be taught; writing as design, which sees the construction of meaning much like the construction of a material object; andmultiliteracies and critical literacy perspectives. Recently there has been emphasis onteachers as writers and the significance of the teacher as a role model. The chapter identifies the range and repertoire of writing: text type, medium, purpose, readership and function. Pupils’ perceptions of writing can inform teachers about how to shape classroom approaches to writing and a brief outline of early writing development shows how, even before they are writing recognisable words, children know a great deal about the purposes and audiences for writing. The chapter concludes with a section on diversity and inclusion, including EAL and gender and writing.