Chapter 4, The civil conflict, provides the history and context of the conflict in Nepal. The chapter provides an overview of the evolution of state (1768–1996) and national identity in Nepal, with a particular focus on the role of the monarchy and Hinduism. It then examines the conflict (1996–2006) including its causes and impacts; this is by an examination of the peace process, including the Comprehensive Peace Agreement and the Interim Constitution and the Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration process.