Canada, China and Russia are very large countries so linear transportation systems are vital to their economy and future development. However, building them on permafrost presents serious problems. The main kinds of systems must be based on preventing heaving and subsidence in the right-of-way, and this is particularly important in the case of construction of high speed railways. The total length of those in China exceeds the total length of such lines in all of Europe, and a substantial part of their route on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is built over warm permafrost.