The vectors of engagement are driven - intentionally or unintentionally - by actors, be they state and/or private actors. Chapter 5 explores these actors. It distinguishes between the governments signing bilateral investment treaties and (re)establishing special agencies for development cooperation, and the numerous private actors benefitting from the framework agreements signed by governments. Importantly, this chapter also draws attention to the fact that South-South Cooperation is not only driven by actors in the emerging economies of the Global South. It is also driven by actors in the rest of the Global South. This story of interaction will be explored via cases like ‘Chocolate city’ in Guangzhou, China, where traders from numerous African countries come to buy goods for their home markets; the ‘shoe and leather industry in Ethiopia’ where producers were forced to shut down their operations due to fierce competition from Chinese imports a decade ago, but managed to benefit from the creative destruction to set up joint ventures with Chinese companies to export goods to China; and ‘Indian and Chinese oilmen’ learning about the international oil business via operations in countries like Sudan and Angola.