This chapter offers a comprehensive examination of the diverse and unprecedented regional and international response to the escalation of maritime piracy in the Gulf of Aden and western Indian Ocean between 2005 and 2016, including naval, judicial, political and humanitarian efforts. It explains how a combination of these measures resulted in a substantial decline in attacks and an opportunity to develop capacity building initiatives, maritime governance and law enforcement between 2013 and 2016. Finally, it explores how Somalia’s precarious political balance and lack of state infrastructure presented a unique set of problems legally, including the propagation of Private Maritime Security Companies after 2008.