Chapter 3 analyses the emergent maritime multilateralism in Southeast Asia after the Asian financial crisis of 1997 up to the signing of the ReCAAP agreement in 2006, exploring how changing perceptions of global security threats after September 2001 resulted in an evolution of internal Southeast Asian security engagement. It explores the effectiveness of an elective range of responses to piracy through detailed examination of tactical and operational engagements supported by a comprehensive statistical analysis. Similarities and distinctions between the upsurge of attacks after 2008 and previous occurrences are also charted alongside renewed efforts at an operational level to address to problem, ultimately resulting in a decline in attacks in 2016. The apparent nexus between organised maritime criminals and terrorism is also critically addressed.